The Great Lakes Commission’s analysis concludes that preventing just one invasive species from entering the Great Lakes watershed could save as much a $5 billion over a 30-year period. Already 10 species have been identified that are poised to enter the watershed from the Mississippi River if they are not divided. Also at stake are the environmental health of the world’s largest fresh water supply and the $7 billion in economic benefits provided by the sport fishing industry on the Great Lakes. The possible impact on tourism dollars hasn’t been calculated. Three possible configurations of barriers were considered in the analysis to prevent the entry of Asian carp and other invasive species, improve wastewater treatment, and still allow commercial and leisure use of the waterways. The three alternatives studied were:
•a down-river single barrier between the confluence of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and the Cal-Sag Channel and the Lockport Lock
•a mid-system series of four barriers on the Chicago Area Waterways System branches between Lockport and Lake Michigan
•the near-lake alternative of up to five barriers near the lakeshore
A study now being performed by the Army Corps of Engineers is not due to be completed until 2015. Some interested observers say that the administration prefers to wait until the report is finalized before taking decisive action. Meanwhile, the Asian carp are moving north, breeding at a prolific rate and impacting fisheries everywhere they can reach. The Chicago-area waterway is not the only way this unwelcome fish can enter the Great Lakes: some river systems in the Midwest, such as the Wabash and the Maumee, are only separated by wetlands subject to flooding. The Maumee River, emptying into Lake Erie, is feared to be excellent prospective Asian carp spawning grounds if the carp can get to it. In Indiana cheap inflatable princess jumper castles, crews have finished installing a fence nearly 1,200 feet long and 8 feet high designed to prevent adult carp from using a northeastern Indiana marsh to swim from the Wabash River system into the Maumee River and then on to Lake Erie during floods. Similar to the efforts in Indiana, a 13-mile steel mesh fence splitting the narrow strip of land between the Des Plaines River and the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal has been completed to keep the Asian carp from passing between the river and the shipping canal during heavy rains. Other possible entry points are being assessed and projects planned to prevent the spread of these voracious feeders. Asian carp have been caught on Mississippi and Missouri tributaries as far north as Minnesota and South Dakota where the problem is also being assessed. dong fang qi moSince the 1970s when three Asian carp species were imported to aid in cleaning Arkansas catfish ponds, the silver carp and bighead carp have proved highly adaptable to our waterways. At the outset, federal government agencies experimented with the imported carp for cleaning sewage treatment ponds and lagoons. Localized flooding quickly moved these fish into adjacent irrigation ditches and river systems where they have steadily expanded their range. These prolific breeders can deposit upwards of 200,000 eggs in a season and grow to over 100 pounds, devouring up to 40% of their body weight daily in the form of plankton. The plankton are thus depleted as a food source for mollusks, insect larvae and the young fry of more desirable fish, reducing the numbers necessary to support traditional fisheries. Asian carp are not good candidates for game fishing as they seldom bite baited hooks. Some intrepid carp fishermen are successful at spearing them or snagging them on treble hooks where that is permitted. Others have built entire bow-fishing businesses along the Illinois River where they take advantage of silver carp’s tendency to jump out of the water when startled. The often-filmed tendency of these fish to jump leads recreational boaters to avoid water where they have begun to proliferate, reducing pleasure boating on some popular tourism lakes and rivers; no one relishes the idea of being hit by a 60-pound flying fish.
The North American effort to halt the northward march of these fish has caught the interest of large numbers of Chinese internet users, where they are endangered and considered a desirable food fish. Schemes to harvest the carp, considered a delicacy by many Asian cultures, have not been very successful as it is now illegal to ship live Asian carp across state lines. Markets catering to Asian clientele are often far removed from the source of the fish, and their patrons prefer live fish for purchase. Areas in the Mississippi delta regions where the carp were previously raised for sale have been stuck with ponds full of the now-unmarketable fish. Some have resorted to selling the dead fish as fertilizer. Efforts at developing a commercial cannery operation have thus far not been very successful due to lack of adequate facilities for processing. Although the mildly-flavored fish is considered a good source of protein, the bony carp are hard to filet and traditionally unpopular in the United States as home-prepared fare. Some deep-south chefs have offered schemes to prepare mechanically-deboned fish for domestic markets as fish sticks and filets but are unable to proceed to profitability of scale due to financing. Some have explored the feasibility of shipping the live fish to Asia, where they are considered a preferred species and are declining due to overfishing and polluted waterways.
The Great Lakes thrill us with their beauty and inspire us with their magnitude. In 1988 the Great Lakes Commission approved a Great Lakes Circle Tour to create a scenic, international road system connecting all five lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway. What could be more ideal than a 6500-mile road trip around the perimeters of the Great Lakes? Each individual lake also has its own circle tour. Marked by distinctive green and white signs, the Tour passes through eight states and one Canadian province, primarily on the historic Blue Highways of the old road maps with spur routes such as the Lake Michigan car ferry. Along the way are small towns, nostalgic roadside attractions, friendly people, and small businesses who are happy to see you pass their way. Let’s look at a few of the highlights along “North America’s Fresh Coast”, starting in Upstate New York at the eastern end of Lake OntarioFayetteville.
Lake Ontario is the smallest of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes Seaway Trail is a 518-mile scenic driving route that follows the shores of the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, the Niagara River, and Lake Erie in New York and Pennsylvania. One of the first roads in America to be designated as a AustraliaNational Scenic Byway, the Great Lakes Seaway Trail includes unique historical locations and cultural heritage sites in addition to outstanding views and scenic vistas. The magnificent Niagara Falls include the Horseshoe Falls, the American Falls, and the Bridal Veil FallsBouncy Slides. The area is well-supplied with small wineries which offer tours and wine tasting opportunities. Charter fishing for salmon, trout and bass is a big attraction, as is sailing. In the Toronto Harbor, a traditional three-masted schooner offers outstanding tours. The ‘tall ships’ still sail Lake Ontario here chong qi zhang peng.
Lake Erie’s Presque Isle State Park near Erie, PA isn’t to be missed. This ancient sand spit extending into Lake Erie was made famous by Commodore Perry, who sheltered here while building the ships with which he won the 1812 Battle of Put-In Bay, the biggest naval battle of the War of 1812. The peninsula now offers beaches, nature trails, kayaking and wildlife preserve, along with the picturesque Presque Isle Lighthouse. The Lake Erie Coastal Ohio Trail meanders past a number of parks and beaches, ferry rides to islands, historic lighthouses and nostalgic roadside attractions. The Ontario side of Lake Erie features Long Point National Wildlife Refuge jutting from the mainland on a narrow sliver of land. Travelers turn north along the Detroit River, through Detroit/Windsor and around Lake Saint Clair, continuing north along the St. Clair River to the southern end of Lake Huron bouncy inflatables.
Lake Huron is the second-largest of the Great Lakes. Both the Michigan and Ontario sides of Lake Huron are supplied with scenic lakeshore drives. The Michigan shoreline follows the ‘Mitten’ outline around the Thumb and on to its highest point at the Straits of Mackinac where Lake Huron meets Lake Michigan. Picturesque lighthouses dot the Lake Huron shoreline, many of them originally built early in the 19th century. The Ontario portion includes Georgian Bay and is particularly well-supplied with provincial parks. The two sides meet at the Saint Mary’s River, leading to the twin cities of Sault Ste Marie, Ontario and Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. Here, a series of locks enable Great Lakes freighters to traverse the rapids and enter the lower Great Lakes from Lake Superior. Tours of the Soo Locks are available in the warmer months.
Lake Superior is the largest, deepest, coldest and least developed of the Great Lakes. The Whitefish Point Light is the oldest operating lighthouse on Lake Superior and the home of the Great Lakes Shipwreck Museum. The 80-mile stretch west from Whitefish Point to Munising is known as the ‘Shipwreck Coast’, with over 550 known shipwrecks recorded and a favorite of divers. This same stretch of deceptively peaceful and picturesque shoreline is home to Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, offering some of the best scenery in North America, with giant limestone bluffs towering above the water of the south shore. At least a hundred waterfalls grace the Upper Peninsula. A trip to Isle Royale National Park is a trip that hardy primitive campers dream about. The Trans-Canada Highway swings north of Lake Superior for some distance through heavily wooded lands with many small lakes. Several provincial parks and nature reserves provide public access to this pristine wilderness area.
Lake Michigan is the only Great Lake located entirely within the United States. Starting at the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula, travelers can follow the scenic lakeshore over 300 miles into Wisconsin. The Door Peninsula is one of Wisconsin’s most picturesque vacationlands. At Manitowoc, a popular car ferry allows for a ‘short-cut’ across the lake to Ludington, avoiding the larger cities farther south. Once past Gary, Indiana, a stop at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore is a must. Heading north along the eastern shoreline, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore was named Most Beautiful Place in America in 2011 by ABC’s Good Morning America. Continue north to the Old Mission Peninsula and its world-famous wineries, passing Lake Michigan’s famous yachting harbors and ski resorts along the way. Restored Fort Michilimackinac, founded in 1715, is open for tours during the summer months. Lake Michigan officially ends at the Straits of Mackinac and the Big Mac Bridge to the Upper Peninsula.
What are the origins of volcanic lakes? Lakes sometimes form in a crater left after an explosive volcanic event. Sometimes they form from the collapse of a volcano’s cone; these lakes are known as caldera lakes. Lakes can also form when lava, mud or ash obstruct an existing river or stream path after an eruption. Some volcanic lakes are filled with life-sustaining water that supports abundant plant and animal life, while others are filled with a toxic brew of hot gasses, acids and liquefied minerals. Fresh-water lake formation is an evolutionary process over thousands of years. How quickly this evolution happens depends of the volume of escaping toxic material, the volume of fresh water flowing into the lake, and how quickly the volcano settles into dormancy. Some volcanic lakes remain in the toxic chemical-soup state for long periods because the underlying geology is still very active. Because some chemical lakes are very beautiful, yet toxic and unpredictable, primitive cultures often believed that hostile gods lived in their depths. Today, photographers seek out volcano lakes due their vibrant, changeable colors. Let’s take an armchair world tour of some of the most popular volcano lakes sumo suits for sale.
Crater Lake, Oregon is often called one of the world’s most beautiful lakes. Located at the crest of the Cascade Range about a hundred miles inland from the Oregon coast, Crater Lake is the United States’ deepest lake at 1,943 feet. Created almost 8,000 years ago as a result of a volcanic explosion, this caldera lake covers 13,056 surface acres at an elevation of 6,171 feet. Crater Lake gains its water primarily from annual snowmelt and has no outlet streams. Protected within Crater Lake National Park, visitors are welcomed by two visitor centers and can camp, fish from shore for salmon or trout, hike, view wildlife, cross-country ski, scuba dive or take a guided boat tour. Visitors enjoy views of the beautiful deep blue water from the Rim Drive, historic Crater Lake Lodge or the numerous campsites located within the park.
Lake Toba, Indonesia is the largest volcanic crater lake in the world, covering almost 272,000 acres. The lake is the result of a super-volcano about 75,000 years ago, believed to be the largest volcanic explosion on earth. The island of Samosir, with 267 square miles, takes up much of the center of the 1,736 feet deep lake. The Province of North Sumatra is a land of lush green jungles and mountains, sparkling lakes, breathtaking waterfalls and exotic birds and animals. Lake Toba’s 2,969 feet elevation is a welcome relief from the sometimes oppressive humidity of the lowlands. Samosir is geared to tourism with plenty of lodging opportunities, including some traditional stilt-house rentals, marketplaces filled with traditional crafts and native villages. Tour boats ply the lake, and the local Batik people encourage visitors to many of their traditional ceremonies. Lake Toba’s exotic locale is a bucket-list-worthy destination.
Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand fills the caldera of a volcano that has erupted at least 27 times, the last being around 181 AD. Home to a Maori tribe for over 700 years, the lake is 538 feet deep, covers a huge 152,216 acres, and is surrounded by land protected by a group of conservancies. The lake itself is a favorite for charter trout fishing, and a number of tour boats allow visitors to view the scenery and local wildlife. The famed 30-foot high Maori rock carvings are best seen from the water. Nearby, the Craters of the Moon geothermal area offers boardwalks among geysers, boiling mud springs, hot pools and steam vents. With an elevation of 1,171 feet, the temperature is usually quite moderate, and the large numbers of guest lodgings make the Lake Taupo area an excellent choice for a holiday.
Lake Coatepeque, El Salvador formed in a caldera between 10,000 and 70,000 years ago, Lake Coatepeque covers 5,931 acres at an elevation of 2,448 feet. The lake is a favored vacation and part-time residential destination for many who enjoy all sorts of water sports, boating, sailing and fishing. Evidence of Lake Coatepeque’s volcanic past can be seen in the steam vents and hot springs on several islands within the lake. Archeological findings point to an important Mayan center once inhabiting two small peninsulas and the Isla del Cerro at the south end of the lake. Two rim roads offer lovely views of the beautiful lake, and scuba divers enjoy exploring the 394-feet depths. Many resorts, hotels and private guest houses provide lodgings for holiday visitors.
The Kelimutu Tri-Colored Lakes, Indonesia are toxic and share a caldera on Kelimutu volcano. Still somewhat active, the last steam explosion occurred in 1968. Located on the Island of Flores at an elevation of 5,377 feet, these three lakes have different chemical compositions even though they originate from the same volcano. The lakes change colors unexpectedly. The local people believed that the spirits of the departed reside in the lake; one is assigned to the spirits of those who die young, one to the elders, and one to evil spirits. The Tri-Colored Lakes and Kelimutu National Park have become a favorite tourism destination, with look-out points constructed where photographers can get the ideal shot of all three lakes with colors ranging from red, blue, green, brown and nearly black. Visitors must remain at a distance as the fumes from the lakes can be highly dangerous. Lodging accommodations can be arranged in Muni, the nearest village. A visit to the Kelimutu Tri-Colored Lakes is an absolute necessity to top off a visit to nearby Komodo Island to see the famed Komodo Dragons.